读1984

看过著名的Macintosh 1984广告,最后一句话“And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984’”曾给我留下了深刻印象,虽然那时我还没看过1984原著,但是也至少久闻其名了。

我曾经对史学家的马后炮之举深感不以为然,他们分析起历史事件的发生原因,可以列出个一二三四五。历史背景、导火索、直接原因、间接原因,头头是道、字字在理。但让他们分析起现状以及未来的走向却只能跟你两手一摊。我深信那些人类中最伟大的智识,存在于预言家中。

1984是反乌托邦的三部代表作之一。英国左翼作家乔治·奥威尔作于20世纪40年代末。我觉得奥威尔之前所作 《动物庄园》 还仅仅停留在对当时苏联政权的接近临摹级的讽刺,其定位还只能算作“寓言”而不是“预言”。但在1984中,60年前所作的预言,与我们这个民族30多年前经历的那场劫难,与地球上某些民族至今仍在经历的悲剧何其相似。

“战争即和平;自由即奴役;无知即力量。“

主人公温斯顿·史密斯所处的1984年的大洋国是一个另人感到窒息的极权主义国家。元首被称作“老大哥”(Big brother)。在这个国家里,人被分为三种层次:核心党、外围党、无产者。史密斯是工作在真理部的一个外围党员。在这里,政府共分四部,名义上,真理部负责新闻艺术、和平部负责战争、友爱部负责法律和秩序(实际上就是拷打)、富裕部负责经济。但讽刺的是,真理部负责的是造假和对历史的篡改。

“谁控制过去就控制未来,谁控制现在就控制过去。”

当有人被人间蒸发时,真理部就需要销毁一切这个人曾经在世上存在过的证据,当本国和欧亚国结盟时,所有能够反映出大洋国曾与欧亚国交战过的历史资料也要一并消除。当然,真理部的外围党员们并不觉得这是造假,用“新话”来说,这叫“双重思想”(double think)。知识是只存在于自己的意识中的,但意识也是很快就可以被消灭的。凡是党现在认为正确的东西就是正确的。所需要做的,只是一而再,再而三,无休止的克服自己的记忆。但温斯顿是个例外,他在日记本中写道“所谓自由,就是可以说二加二等于四的自由”。温斯顿在心中寻思自已是不是个疯子,但又觉得“所谓疯子就是个人少数派”,有这样的想法,使他自己感到可怕。

“老大哥在看着你!”

“打倒老大哥!”温斯顿无意识下在日记本中写满了这样的反动标语。但是他并不感觉到害怕,因为“思想罪不会带来死亡;思想罪本身就是死亡”。他觉得只要他脑子里想过,他就已经是个死人了,因为思想警察必然迟早看透他的思想,而不在于他在日记本里写的东西是否会被人发现。

党有个头号叛徒、变节分子“果尔施坦因”。他一度与老大哥平起平坐,后来从事反革命活动叛逃。自此这后,一切反党行为、异端邪说便都成了来源于它的教唆。似乎每个极权主义国家里都能找到这么一个果尔施坦因的影子,苏联的托洛斯基,中国的刘少奇、林彪。温斯顿想造反,加入“果尔施坦因”所创立的“兄弟会”,但是又怀疑这个组织的存在是否也是党一手凭空捏造出来的。一个偶然的机会,核心党的成员奥勃良邀请温斯顿加入兄弟会,并送了他一本果尔施坦因的书–《寡头政治集体主义的理论与实践》,这本书对温斯顿所处世界的运作本质作了深刻的分析,很多内容直到今天仍有借鉴意义。如下面两段

社会主义运动原来所主张的一切原则,党无不加以反对和攻击,但又假社会主义之名,这么做,党教导大家要轻视工人阶级,这是过去好几百年来没有先例的,但是又要党员穿着一度是体力工人才穿的制服,所以选定这种服装也是由于这个缘故。党有计划地破坏家庭关系,但是给党的领导人所起的称呼又是直接打动家庭感情的称呼。甚至统治我们的四个部的名称,也说明有意歪曲事实之厚颜无耻到了什么程度。和平部负责战争,真理部负责造谣,友爱部负责拷打,富裕部负责挨饿。这种矛盾不是偶然的,也不是出于一般的伪善,而是有意运用双重思想。因为只有调和矛盾才能无限止地保持权力。古老的循环不能靠别的办法打破。如果要永远避免人类平等,如果我们所称的上等人要永远保持他们的地位,那么目前的心理状态就必须加以控制。
他们没有看到,寡头政体的延续不一定需要体现在人身上;他们也没有想到,世袭贵族一向短命,而象天主教那样的选任组织有时却能维持好几百年或者好几千年。寡头政体的关键不是父子相传,而是死人加于活人身上的一种世界观,一种生活方式的延续。一个统治集团只要能够指定它的接班人就是一个统治集团。党所操心的不是维系血统相传而是维系党的本身的永存。由谁掌握权力并不重要,只要等级结构保持不变。

如果故事进行到这里,温斯顿与奥勃良一起开始反党地下活动,最终被捕,以至慷慨就义,倒也是个可以接受的结局,但就远不能对我产生现在这么大的震撼了。没错,温斯顿最终的确是被捕了,但抓捕和拷问他的人却正是奥勃良。原来奥勃良是个思想警察头子,对温斯顿所做的一切都是迫使他上钩。真正让人感到脊背发凉的恐怖之处在于,奥勃良本人也是《寡头政治集体主义的理论与实践》的编者。温斯顿想,奥勃良什么都知道,也比自己聪明一千倍。对于这样一个疯子,他比你聪明,他心平气和的听了你的论点,但是仍坚持他的疯狂,你有什么办法呢?

是啊,当“他们”比你聪明一千倍,你的盲从也好,愤青情绪也罢,无一不是受“他们”的煽动时,你又有什么办法呢?

“在遮阴的栗树下,你出卖了我,我出卖了你”

最终,处于极度生理性恐惧下的温期顿,在灵魂上出卖了他的女友。这是我觉得全篇之中最让人感到压抑的一段。古话说“己所不欲,勿施于人”,但论及到人的本能时,真的就只能让人感到如此沮丧么?爱难道不也是本能的一种?

全篇阅毕,着实感到刻骨的压抑。但随后看了《批评官员的尺度:〈纽约时报〉诉警察局长沙利文案》一书又觉开朗了许多。因着那些高尚而富有智慧的仁人志士不断努力,人类社会最终没有滑向那个无底深渊。但是对其的持有的警惕心,我们却是始终不能放松的。

由此我想到,美国百多年前就已经对言论自由的事前限制达成共识,五十多年前对事后限制作出定案。我泱泱中华却至今仍连事前限制都密不透风。这样的态势还能持续多久呢?乔治·奥威尔说“如果有希望,希望在无产者身上”,但如果真正产生了把“无产者”逼上墙的局面,起码我是不愿意看到的。

天下大势,浩浩汤汤,顺之者昌,逆之者亡。

12 Responses

  1. 好文呐! 据说是曾列为banned book的一本书~~

    同感战栗。

    一个人要是被置于了一颗棋子的位置上,一切只能用命运来诠释了;善与恶,聪明与德性,欺骗与轻信,似乎只能交给上帝去掷筛子了。上帝又是个啥?——似乎世界笼罩在一片喑哑的沉滞之中。

    “思想罪不会带来死亡;思想罪本身就是死亡”。 感觉在实际中,思与行是无法客观分离的。萨特都说:“即使我们像石头一样沉默无语,我们的被动本身也是一种行动。”思想警察的“聪明”可能反讽了人在追求绝对的自由之时的“愚昧”。

    历史常常拿这种个人的毁灭殉超个体的价值,似乎要把所有可能狰狞的面目展现于世,而不顾能不能让常识承受。似乎最后就是告诫每个普通的想追求幸福的人,说:“天下大势,浩浩汤汤,顺之者昌,逆之者亡。”

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